Mezirow, Jack. Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. 1st ed. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.
The Author – Jack Mezirow
a pdf of learning as Transformation by Jack Mezirow my notes
“Transformative learning refers to the process by which we transform our taken-for-granted frames of reference (meaning perspectives, habits of mind, mind-sets) to make them more inclusive, discriminating, open, emotionally capable of change, and reflective so that they may generate beliefs and opinions that will prove more true or justified to guide action. Transformative learning involves participation in constructive discourse to use the experience of others to assess reasons justifying these assumptions, and making an action decision based on the resulting insight.” (8)
Habermas – two types of learning:
instrumental learning – learning to control and manipulate the environment or other people.
communicative learning – learning what others mean when they communicate with you.
Inequality, Development, and Connected Knowing by Mary Field Belenky, Ann V. Stanton
see pdf of Connected Knowing. There is a difference between “Received Knowers,” “Subjective Knowers,” and two types of Procedural Knowing: “separate knowers” and “connected knowers”–The Doubting Game vs. the Believing Game.
I found an interesting paper by Blythe Clinchy discussing Connected Knowing.
Transformative Learning for the Common Good by Laurent Daloz – (112-117)
“Given that the engagement with otherness plays a key role in transformation, that it does so through an incremental process of differentiation and integration, and that the process involves a series of identifiable steps, what are the conditions under which those steps might occur?
- The Presence of the Other
- Reflective Discourse – “there must be conscious, critical reflection on our early assumptions about how life is.”
- A Mentoring Community – ” it is clear that if we really want to understand transformative learning richly we need to recognize the extraordinary power of the webs of relationships in which we are invariably held.
- Opportunities for Committed Action
Transformative Learning as Ideology Critique by Stephen D. Brookfield
“examining power relationships and hegemonic assumptions must be integral to the definition of critical reflection, thus turning it into a political idea.” (125)
Must keep the term “critical reflection” connected to the Frankfurt School idea of Critical Social Theory, and not be watered down by Transformative Learning language.
Creating New Habits of Mind in Small Groups by Elizabeth Kasl and Dean Elias
“Our practice as adult educators is based on the premise that groups have the capacity to learn. We find support for our belief in two concepts from systems thinking. The first is isomorphism among levels of human systems–for example, the individual, group, and organization. ‘If the object is a system, it must have certain systems characteristics, irrespective of what the system is otherwise’ (von Bertanlanffy, 1968, p. 85). The second concept is the idea of group mind. As defined by Gregory Bateson, groups and organizations satisfy the criteria for mind (1979, p. 97). Accepting the validity of isomorphism and group mind, we conclude that if an individual can learn, so can a group, organization, or community.
Given the premise that groups are able to learn and postulating that theories about learning in individuals can also apply to groups, we turn to theories of individual learning for guidance in how to understand and facilitate group learning.” (230)
Organization Learning and Transformation by Lyle Yorks and Victoria J. Marsick
see pdf of pages 255-261 Action Learning and Collaborative Inquiry
see bibliography for Action Learning and Collaborative Inquiry. Authors to note: Peter Reason and John Rowan